Animal Liberation Front – ALF

The Animal Liberation Front ( ALF ) is an international, secret conductor resistance engaged in illegal direct action in pursuit of animal rights.Activists see themselves as a modern Underground Railroad, removing animals from laboratories and farms, destroying plants, arranging safe houses and veterinary care, and operating sanctuaries where the animals live later. [2]Critics have classified them as terrorists. [3] [4] [5]

Active in over 40 countries, ALF cells operate secretly, which consists of small groups of friends and sometimes just one person, making movement difficult for the authorities to monitor. Robin Webb of the British Animal Liberation Press Office has said: “That is why the ALF can not be smashed, it can not be effectively infiltrated, it can not stop you, every one of you .. You are ALF” [6]

Activists say the movement is non-violent. According ALF Code, any act that promotes the cause of animal liberation, where all reasonable precautions are taken not to harm humans or non-human life, can be claimed as an ALF action, including vandalism causing economic harm their victims. American activist Rod Coronado said in 2006: “One thing I know that separates us from the people we are constantly accused of being, that is, terrorists, violent criminals-the fact that we have harmed anyone.” [7]

It has nevertheless been widespread criticism that ALF spokespersons and activists have either failed to condemn acts of violence or have themselves engaged in it, either in the name of ALF or under a different banner. The criticism has been accompanied by disagreements within the movement itself on the use of force and increased attention from police and intelligence services animals aside. In 2002, the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), which monitors extremism in the United States noted the involvement of ALF in the Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty campaign SPLC identified using terrorist tactics-but a recent SPLC report also noted that they have not killed anyone. [3] In 2005, ALF was part of a US Department of Homeland Security document lists a number of domestic terrorist threat that the US government is expected to focus resources. [4] In the UK ALF actions are considered as examples of domestic extremism and supported by the National Extremism Tactical Coordination, established in 2004 to monitor the ALF and other activities illegal animals aside. [5] [8]

Origins

Band of Mercy

The roots of the ALF trace back to December 1963, when the British journalist John Prestige was assigned to cover a Devon and Somerset Stag Hounds event, where he saw the hunters hunt and kill a pregnant deer. In protest, he formed the Hunt Saboteurs Association (HSA), developed by groups of volunteers trained to thwart the Hunts’ dogs by blowing horns and fake fragrances. [9]

Author Animals Forensic Noel Molland writes that one of these HSA group was formed in 1971 by a law student from Luton named Ronnie Lee. In 1972 it was decided Lee and fellow activist Cliff Goodman more militant tactics were needed. They revived the name of a 19th-century RSPCA youth group, The Band of Mercy, and with about a half dozen activists set the Band of Mercy, who attacked hunters’ vehicles by cutting tires and breaking windows, which aims to stop the pursuit of also beginning, rather than thwart it once again. [10]

1973 taught the band to Hoechst Pharmaceuticals built a research laboratory near Milton Keynes. On 10 November 1973, two activists set fire to the building, which is £ 26,000 worth of damage, returning six days later to set fire to what was left of it. It was the animal liberation movement’s first known act of arson. In June 1974 two Band activists set fire to boats participating in the annual seal slaughter outside Norfolk, which Molland writes was the last time the slaughter took place. Between June and August 1974 launched the band eight raids against animal testing laboratories and others against chicken breeders and gun shops, damaging buildings or vehicles. Its first act of “animal liberation” took place during the same period when activists removed half a dozen guinea pigs from a guinea pig farm in Wiltshire, after which the owner closed the business, fearing more attacks. Then, as now, caused by violence against the property of a split within the burgeoning movement. In July 1974 Hunt Saboteurs Association offered a £ 250 reward for information leading to the identification of the Band of Mercy, telling the press: “We accept their ideals, but are opposed to their methods.” [11]

ALF formed

In August 1974, Lee and Goodman were arrested for taking part in a raid on Oxford laboratory animals Colonies in Bicester, earning them the moniker “Bicester Two.” Daily demonstrations took place outside the court during the trial; Lee’s local Labour MP, Ivor Clemitson, was one of their followers. They were sentenced to three years in prison, then Lee went on the movement’s first hunger strike to obtain vegan food and clothing. The parole after 12 months, Lee presented during the spring of 1976, more militant than ever. He gathered the remaining Band of Mercy activists and two dozen new recruits, 30 in all. Molland writes that the Band of Mercy name sounded wrong as a description of what Lee saw as a revolutionary movement. Lee wanted a name that would haunt those who used the animals, according to Molland. Thus, the Animal Liberation Front was born. [11] [12]

The structure and goals

Underground and above ground

The movement is underground and above-ground components, and is completely decentralized with no formal hierarchy, the absence of which acts as a fire retardant in terms of legal liability. Volunteers are expected to adhere to ALF’s stated aims when using its banner:

  • Add economic damage to those who profit from the misery and exploitation of animals.
  • To liberate animals from places of abuse, ie laboratories, factory farms, ranches, etc, and place them in good homes where they can live out their natural life, free from suffering.
  • To reveal the horror and atrocities against animals behind locked doors, by performing non-violent direct actions and liberations
  • To take all necessary precautions against damage to any animal, human and non-human.
  • All groups of people who are vegans and who carry out actions according to ALF guidelines have the right to consider themselves as part of the ALF. [1]

There are a number of surface groups to support secret volunteers. The Animal Liberation Front Supporters Group (ALF SG) adopts activists in prison as prisoners of conscience; anyone can join ALFSG for a small monthly fee. Vegan Prisoners Support Group, which was formed in 1994 when British activist Keith Mann first imprisoned, works with prison authorities in the UK to ensure that ALF prisoners have access to vegan supplies. The Animal Liberation Press Office receives and publishes anonymous communiques from volunteers; it acts as a seemingly independent group funded by public donations, although the High Court in London ruled in 2006 that the Press Officer in the UK, Robin Webb, was a central figure in the ALF. [13]

There are three publications in connection with the ALF. Arkangel is a British biannual magazine founded by Ronnie Lee. Bite Back is a website where activists leave claims of responsibility, it published a “Direct Action Report” in 2005 that, in 2004 alone, had ALF activists removed 17.262 animals from holdings, and had claimed 554 vandalism and arson. No compromise is a San Francisco-based website which also reports of ALF actions. [14]

Filosofi direct action

ALF activists argue that animals should not be seen as property and to researchers and industry have no right to assume ownership of the living creatures that are the “subjects-of-a-life” in the words of philosopher Tom Regan. [15] According to the ALF, fail to acknowledge this is an example of speciesism -The naming of different values for the creatures because of their species membership alone, which they claim is as ethically flawed as racism or sexism. They reject the animal welfarist position that more humane treatment required for animals; They say their goal is empty cages, not larger. Activists argue that the animals from laboratories or farms are “liberated”, not “stolen” because they never rightfully owned in the first place. [16]

Although ALF members reject violence against people, many activists supporting attacks on property, comparing the destruction of animal laboratories and other facilities to the insurgents blow up the gas chambers in Nazi Germany. [18] Their argument for sabotage is that the removal of the animals from a laboratory simply means that they will be quickly replaced, but if the laboratory itself is destroyed, it slows not only the release process, but increases costs, possibly to the extent of doing animal prohibitively expensive; This, they argue, will encourage the search for alternatives. An ALF activist involved in an arson attack on the University of Arizona told No compromise in 1996: “[I] t is approximately the same as the champions who fought against slavery go in and burn down quarters or demolish the auction block. .. Sometimes when you just take the animals and do something else, maybe it is not as strong a message. ” [19]

The provision against domestic ALF code has triggered divisions within the movement and accusations of hypocrisy from the ALF critics. 1998, terrorism expert Paul Wilkinson called the ALF and its splinter groups “the most serious domestic terrorist threat in the UK”. [20] In 1993, ALF was listed as an organization “claimed to have committed acts of extremism in the United States,” the report to Congress on the extent and impact of domestic and international terrorism at the Animal companies. [21] It was named as a terrorist threat by the US Department of Homeland Security in January 2005. [22] In March 2005, a speech from the Counterterrorism Division of the FBI stated that: “The eco-terrorist movement has given rise and notoriety to groups such as Animal Liberation Front, or ALF, and the Earth Liberation Front (ELF). These groups are committing serious acts of vandalism and to harass and intimidate the owners and employees in business. ” [23] In the hearing held on 18 May 2005, before a Senate panel, officials from the FBI and Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) stated that” violent extremists animals legal and eco-terrorists now represents one of the most serious terrorist threats to the nation. ” [24] [25] The use of the terrorist label has been criticized, however; Southern Poverty Law Center, which tracks the US domestic extremism, writes that “for all the property damage they have inflicted eco-radicals did not kill anybody.” [3]

Philosopher Steven Best and trauma surgeon Jerry Vlasak, both of whom have volunteered for the North American press service, was banned from entering the UK in 2004 and 2005 after making statements that appeared to support violence against people. Vlasak told a conference of animals aside in 2003: “I do not think you’d have to kill-kill too many vivisectors before you would see a marked decrease in the amount of vivisection going on and I think for five lives, 10 lives, 15 human lives, we can save one million, two million, 10 million non-human animals. ” [26] Best coined the term” extensional self-defense “to describe the actions carried out in defense of animals people who act as agents. He claims that the activists have the moral right to engage in sabotage or violence because animals can not fight back themselves. Best argues that the principle of extensional self defense mirrors the penal code statues called necessity defense, which can be invoked when a defendant believes illegal act was necessary to avoid imminent and great harm. [27]

The nature of the ALF as a leaderless resistance means support Vlasak and Best is difficult to measure. An anonymous volunteer interviewed in 2005 for CBS’s 60 Minutes said on Vlasak: “[H] e do not work with our support and our support and our appreciation, the support of the ALF We have a strict code of non-violence. … I do not know who put Dr. Vlasak in the position he’s in. It was not us, ALF. ” [28]
The philosopher Peter Singer of Princeton University contends that ALF direct action can only be seen as a just cause if it is non-violence, and that the ALF is most effective when revealing evidence of animal abuse to other tactics could not reveal. He cites 1984’s “Unnecessary Fuss” campaign, when the ALF raided the University of Pennsylvania head-injury research clinic and removed footage shows scientists laugh at the brain conscious baboons, as an example. The university responded to the treatment of the animals were consistent with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) guidelines, but as a result of the publicity, the lab was shut down, the chief veterinarian fired, and the university probation. Barbara Orlans, a former animal researcher with the NIH, now with the Kennedy Institute of Ethics, writes that the goal stunned the biomedical community, and today is considered one of the most significant cases of the ethics of using animals in research. [29] Singer argues that if the ALF would focus on this kind of direct action, rather than sabotage, it would appeal to the minds of reasonable people. Against this, writes Steven best to industries and governments have too much institutional and financial bias of reason to prevail. [30]

Peter Hughes of the University of Sunderland cites a 1988 raid in Britain under the leadership of the ALF activist Barry Horne as an example of positive ALF direct action. Horne and four other activists decided to release Rocky, a dolphin who had lived in a small concrete pool at Marineland in Morecambe for 20 years, by moving him 180 meters (590 feet) from its pool to the sea. [31] The police saw them carrying a home-made dolphin stretcher, and they were convicted of conspiracy to steal, but they continued to fight for Rocky release. Marine finally agreed to sell him for £ 120,000, money that was raised with the help of the Born Free Foundation and the Mail on Sunday , and 1991 Rocky was transferred to a 80-acre (320,000 m 2 ) lagoon reserve in the Turks and Caicos Islands, then released. Hughes writes that ALF action helped create a paradigm shift in the UK toward seeing dolphins as “individual actors” as a result of which he writes, there is now no captive dolphins in the UK. [32]

Early tactics and ideology

Main article: Timeline of Animal Liberation Front actions, 1976-1999

Rachel Monaghan at the University of Ulster writes that in its first year alone operation ALF actions accounted for £ 250,000 worth of damage, targeting butcher shops, fur, circuses, slaughterhouses, breeders and fast food restaurants. She writes that ALF philosophy was that violence can only be made against sentient life forms, and will focus on property destruction and removal of animals from laboratories and farms were consistent with a philosophy of non-violence, despite the damage they cause. [12] In 1974, Ronnie Lee insisted that direct action “is limited only by the awe of life and hatred of violence”, and in 1979 he wrote that many ALF raids had been called off because of the risk to life. [33]

Kim Stable Wood, a national organizer for the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection (BUAV) in the 1980s, wrote that the public’s response to early ALF raids that removed animals was very positive, largely because of the non-violence policy. When Mike Huskisson removed three beagles from a tobacco study at ICI in June 1975 the media portrayed him as a hero. [34] [35] Robin Webb writes that ALF volunteers were seen as the “Robin Hood of the animal protection world.” [36]

The acronym ALF inom Anarki -A symbol

Stable Wood writes that they saw ALF activism as part of their opposition to the state, rather than as an end-in-itself, and did not follow non-violence. [34]In the early 1980s, the BUAV, an anti-vivisection group founded by Frances Cobbe runs in 1898, was among the ALF supporters. Stable Wood writes that it donated a portion of its office rent-free for the ALF Supporters Group, and gave ALF actions uncritical support of his newspaper, The Liberator . In 1982, a group of ALF activists, including Roger Yates, now a sociologist at University College, Dublin, and Dave McColl, a head of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, joined the BUAV’s executive committee, and used his position to radicalize organization. [37] Stable Wood writes that the new executive thought all policies to be a waste of time and wanted the BUAV to devote its resources exclusively to direct action. The earliest activists had undertaken to save the animals and destroyed property only if it contributed to the earlier, in the mid-1980s, thought Stable Wood ALF had lost its ethical basis, and had become a possibility “for misfits and misanthrope to seek personal revenge for some perceived social injustice “. He writes: “Where were intelligent debate about tactics and strategies that go beyond the mindless rhetoric and emotional elitism permeates much of the self-produced direct action literature In short, what had happened to the animals’ interests?” In 1984, the BUAV board reluctantly voted to expel ALF SG from their premises and withdraw its political support, whereupon Stable Wood writes became increasingly isolated ALF. [38]

Development of ALF in the US

Domitian, one of the Silver Spring monkeys. [39] One of the first ALF action in the United States was reportedly to remove the monkeys to a hiding place in September 1981. [40]

There are conflicting accounts when ALF first appeared in the United States. FBI writes that animal rights activists had a history of committing low-level criminal activities in the United States dates back to the 1970s. [41] Freeman Wicklund and Kim Stable Wood say first ALF action was the 29th May 1977 when researchers Ken Levasseur and Steve Sipman released two dolphins, Puka and Kea, in the sea from the University of Hawaii’s Marine Mammal Laboratory. [42] The North American Animal Liberation Press Office attributes dolphin release to a group called Undersea Railroad, and says that the first ALF action, in fact, a raid against the New York University Medical Center March 14, 1979, when activists removed one cat, two dogs and two guinea pigs. [43]

Kathy Snow Guillermo writes in Monkey Business as the first ALF action was to remove the September 22, 1981 in Silver Spring monkeys, 17 lab monkeys in the legal custody of PETA (PETA), after a researcher who had experimented on them were arrested for alleged violations of ferocity legislation. When the court that the monkeys returned to the researcher, they mysteriously disappeared, only to reappear five days later when PETA learned that legal action against the researcher could not continue without the monkeys as evidence. [40] Ingrid Newkirk, president of PETA, writes that the first ALF cell was formed in late 1982, after a police she calls “Valerie” replied the publicity triggered by the Silver Spring monkeys case and flew to England trained by ALF. Posing as a reporter, Valerie connect with Ronnie Lee Kim Stable Wood, who at the time worked for the BUAV. Lee directed her to a training camp, where she is learning to break into laboratories. Newkirk writes that Valerie returned to Maryland and set up an ALF cell, with the first raid took place December 24, 1982 to Howard University, where 24 cats were removed, some of whose hind legs were paralyzed. [42] [44] Jo Shoesmith, an American lawyer and activist animal rights, says Newkirk account of “Valerie” is not only fictionalized, as Newkirk acknowledges, though totally fictional. [45]

Two early ALF raids led to the closure of several university studies. A May 28, 1984 raid on the University of Pennsylvania head injury clinic caused $ 60,000 worth of damage and saw the removal of the 60 hours of tapes, which the researchers showed was laughing when they used a hydraulic device to cause brain damage to the baboons. [46] The tapes were submitted to PETA, which produced a 26 minute video called Unnecessary Fuss . The head injury clinic was closed, the university’s primary veterinarian was fired, and the university was put on probation. [47]

On April 20, 1985 acting on a tip from a student, ALF raided a laboratory in the University of California, Riverside, which is $ 700,000 in damages and remove 468 animals. [48] [49] [50] These included Britches, a five week-old macaque, which had been separated from their mother at birth and alone with eyes sewn shut and a sonar device on the head as part of a study in blindness. The raid, which was taped by the ALF, eight of seventeen active research laboratory was closed, and the university said years of medical research were lost. The raid prompted the National Institutes of Health director James Wyngaarden to argue that the raids should be considered as terrorist acts. [51] [52]

Animal Rights Militia and the Justice Department

Monaghan writes that around 1982, there was a noticeable change in the non-violent position, and not approved by all in motion. Some activists began making personal threats to individuals, followed by the letter bombs and threats to contaminate the food, the latter marks a transition to threaten the public, rather than specific targets. [12]

In 1982, letter bombs were sent to all four major party leaders in the UK, including Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. The first major food scare happened in November 1984 with the ALF claimed to the media that it had polluted Bars in March as part of a campaign to force the company in March to stop tooth decay conduct tests on monkeys. [53] On November 17, the Sunday Mirror received a call from ALF saying it had injected March Bars in stores across the country with rat poison. The call was followed by a letter containing a Mars Bar, believed to be infected, and the claim that they were on sale in London, Leeds, York, Southampton and Coventry. Millions bars were removed from the shelves and Mars stopped production, at a cost to the Company of $ 4,500,000. [54] The ALF admitted claims were a hoax. Similar pollution claims later directed to L’Oréal and Lucozade. [55]

The letter bombs were claimed by the Animal Rights Militia (ARM), even if the original message in November 1984 by David Mellor, then a Home Office minister, made it clear that it was the Animal Liberation Front, which had claimed responsibility. [56] This is an early example of the shifting of responsibility from one banner to another depending on the type of action, with ARM and another nom de guerre , the Justice Department -the latter was first used in 1993 stands out as the name for direct actions violated the ALF’s “no harm living beings” principle. Ronnie Lee, who previously insisted on the importance of ALF non-violence policy, seemed to support the idea. An article signed by RL presumed to be Ronnie Lee in October 1984 ALF Supporters Group newsletter suggested that the activists set up “fresh groups … under new names whose policies do not exclude the use of force against animal abusers.” [57]

No activist is known to have conducted business in both ALF and ARM banners, but the overlap is adopted. Terrorism expert Paul Wilkinson has written to the ALF, the Justice Department, and ARM is basically the same thing, [58] and Robert Garner of the University of Leicester writes that it would be pointless to argue otherwise, given the kind of movement that a leaderless resistance. Robin Webb of the British Animal Liberation Press Office has acknowledged that the activists could be the same people: “If anyone wants to act as Animal Rights Militia or the Justice Department, simply put, the … policy Animal Liberation Front, to take all reasonable precautions not to endanger the life, no longer applies. ” [59]

From 1983 onwards, a series of firebombs exploded in department store that sold fur, with the intention to trigger the sprinkler system to cause damage, although several shops partially or completely destroyed. [60] In September 1985, incendiary devices placed in cars Sharat Gangoli and Stuart Walker, both animal scientist with the British Industrial Biological Research Association (BIBRA), destroying both vehicles but with no injuries and ARM claimed responsibility. In January 1986 ARM said it had placed the devices in the cars of four employees of Huntingdon Life Sciences, timed to explode an hour from each other. Another device was placed under the car Andor Sebesteny, a researcher for the Imperial Cancer Research Fund, which he saw before it exploded. [61] The next major attacks against individual scientists took place in 1990, when the cars of two veterinary scientists destroyed by advanced explosives in two separate explosions. [62] [ copyright infringement? ] In February 1989 an explosion damaged the Senate House bar in Bristol University, an attack claimed the unknown “Animal Abused Society”. [62] [copyright infringement? ] In June 1990, two days apart, bombs exploded in the car of Margaret Baskerville, a veterinarian who works at Porton Down, a chemical research defense establishment, and Patrick Max Headley, a physiologist at the University of Bristol. Baskerville escaped without injuries by jumping out the window of his mini-jeep when a bomb using a mercury tilt device exploded next to the fuel tank. During the attack on Headley-which New Scientist writes involved the use of plastic explosives-13-month-old baby in a stroller suffered flash burns, shrapnel wounds and a partially severed finger. [62] [ copyright infringement? ] A wave of letter bombs followed in 1993, which was opened by the head of Hereford site of GlaxoSmithKline, which burns on the hands and face. Eleven similar devices were caught in the postal sorting office. [62] [ copyright infringement? ]

False flags and plausible deniability

The type of ALF exposes his name to the risk that the use of the activists who reject his nonviolence platform or of opponents engaged in so-called “false flag” operation designed to make ALF seem violent. The same uncertainty gives genuine ALF activists with plausible deniability should an operation go wrong, by denying that the law was “authentic ALF”. [63]

Several incidents in 1989 and 1990 described the movement as a false flag operations. In February 1989 an explosion damaged the Senate House bar in Bristol University, an attack claimed the unknown “Animal Abused Society”. In June 1990, two days apart, bombs exploded in the car of Margaret Baskerville, a veterinarian who works at Porton Down, a chemical research defense establishment, and Patrick Max Headley, a professor of physiology at the University of Bristol. Baskerville escaped without injuries by jumping out the window of his mini-jeep when a bomb using a mercury tilt device exploded next to the fuel tank. During the attack on Headley-which New Scientist writes involved the use of plastic explosives -a 13-month-old baby in a stroller suffered flash burns, shrapnel wounds on his back, and a partially severed finger. [64]

No known device claimed responsibility for the attacks, which were condemned within the animal rights movement and ALF activists. Keith Mann writes that it does not seem likely that activists known for making simple incendiary devices from household components would suddenly switch to mercury tilt switches and plastic explosives, then never heard from again. A few days after the bombing, the unknown “British Animal Rights Society” claimed responsibility for having secured a nail bomb to a Huntsman Land Rover in Somerset. Forensic evidence led police to seize the vehicle owner, who admitted that he had bombed his own car to discredit the animal rights movement, and asked for two similar offenses to be taken into account. He was jailed for nine months. The Baskerville and Headley bombers never been arrested. [65]

1996

Further information: Consort beagles; Save Hillgrove cats; Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty; Save the Newchurch Guinea Pigs; TALK campaign; Timeline of Animal Liberation Front actions, 2000-2004; and Timeline of Animal Liberation Front actions, 2005-present

Property destruction began to increase sharply after several high-profile campaigns closed facilities are perceived as insulting to the animals. Consort Kennels, a plant breeding beagles for animal experiments; Hillgrove Farm, which bred cats; and Newchurch Farm, which bred guinea pigs, were all closed after being targeted by campaigns animal judicial seemed engage ALF. In the UK, financial year 1991-1992 saw around 100 refrigerated meat trucks destroyed by incendiary devices at a cost of about £ 5 million. Butcher locks superglued, shrink-wrapped meats were pierced in supermarkets, slaughterhouses and refrigerated meat trucks were set on fire. [66]

In 1999, ALF activists of the international Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty (SHAC) campaign to close Huntingdon Life Sciences (HLS), Europe’s largest animal testing laboratory. The Southern Poverty Law Center, which monitors US domestic extremism, described SHAC’s modus operandi as “strictly terrorist tactics similar to those of anti-abortion fringe”. [67] ALF activist Donald Currie was jailed for 12 years and probation for life in December 2006 after being found guilty of planting homemade bombs on the doorsteps of businessmen with links to HLS. [68] HLS director Brian Cass was attacked by men wielding pick-ax handles in February 2001, an attack so severe that detective Tom Hobbs of Cambridgeshire police said it was only by sheer luck that they had begun a murder inquiry. [69] David Blenkinsop was one of those convicted of the attack, someone who had previously implemented measures in the name of the ALF. [70]

Also in 1999, a freelance reporter, Graham Hall, said he had been attacked after producing a documentary critical ALF, which aired on Channel 4. The documentary showed ALF press officer, Robin Webb, appearing to give the Hall who filmed undercover while purporting to be an activist-advice on how to make an improvised explosive device, but Webb said his comments had been used out of context. Hall said that as a result of the documentary, he was abducted, tied to a chair, and had the letters “ALF” marked on the back, before being released 12 hours later with a warning not to tell the police. [71]

In June 2006, the ALF claimed responsibility for a firebomb attack on UCLA researcher Lynn Fairbanks, after a firebomb was placed on the doorstep of a house occupied by his 70-year-old tenant; According to the FBI, it was powerful enough to have killed the occupants, but failed to ignite. The attack credited by the acting UCLA Chancellor helps shape Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act. Animal Liberation Press Officer Jerry Vlasak said of the attack: “force is a poor second choice, but if it is the only thing that works … it really moral justification for it.” [72] [73] [74] As of 2008, activists increasingly protests home to the scientist, engineer ‘home demonstrations, “which may mean that the noise during the night, writes slogans on the researchers’ property, smashing windows, and spreading rumors to neighbors. [75]

Operation Backfire

Further information: Earth Liberation Front § Cooperation with the ALF

On 20 January 2006 as part of Operation Backfire , the US Justice Department announced charges against nine Americans and two Canadian activists who call themselves “family”. At least nine of the 11 pleaded guilty to conspiracy and arson for their parts in a string of 20 arsons from 1996 to 2001, damage totaled $ 40 million. [76] The Department of Justice called documents examples of domestic terrorism. Activists of environmental and animal judicial cites legal action Green Scare . The incidents included arson attacks on meat processing plants, lumber companies, a high voltage power line, and a ski resort in Oregon, Wyoming, Washington, California, and Colorado between 1996 and 2001. [77]

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  17. Jump up ^ Mann, Keith. From Dusk Till Dawn . Puppy Pincher Press, 2007, p. 55.
  18. Jump up ^ Bernstein, Mark. “Legitimating Liberation,” at best and Nocella. Terrorists or freedom fighters? . Lantern Books, 2004, p. 91.
  19. Jump up ^ McClain, Carla. “ALF: A Secret Interview with a compassionate companion,” No compromise , March-April 1996, p. 12, quoted in Schnürer, Maxwell. “At the Gates of Hell,” at best and Nocella, terrorists or freedom fighters? 2004, pp. 115-116.
  20. Jump up ^ “Inside the ALF”, Dispatches , Channel 4 Television, 1998.
  21. Jump up ^ “Report to Congress on the extent and impact of domestic and international terrorism at the Animal Company, Appendix 1,” the United States Department of Justice
  22. Jump up ^ Rood, Justin. “Animal Rights Groups and Ecology Militants Make DHS terrorist list, right Vigilantes Omitted”, Congressional Quarterly, on 25 March 2005.
  23. Jump up ^ “Speech by John E. Lewis, deputy director, FBI Counterterrorism Division.” 4th Annual International Conference on Public Safety: Technology and Counterterrorism Counterterrorism initiatives and partnerships, San Francisco, California. March 14, 2005.
  24. Jump up ^ Terry Frieden, “the FBI, ATF address domestic terrorism,” CNN , 19 May 2005.
  25. Jump up ^ FBI defines “domestic terrorism” as “activities that involve acts dangerous to human life that are a violation of the criminal laws of the United States or of any state, appears to be intended to intimidate or coerce a civilian population, to influence the policy of a government by mass destruction, assassination, or kidnapping; and occur primarily within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States. ” (18 USC § 2331 (5)) [1]
  26. Jump up ^ For information on the prohibition of the best and Vlasak, see MacLeod, Donald. “The UK uses hatred law to ban animal rights campaigner”, The Guardian , 31 August 2005.
    • See also Blackstock, Colin. Blunkett was worn American animal rights activist from Britain, The Guardian, August 26, 2004.
    • For Vlasak 2003 statement, see Best, Steven. “Who’s Afraid of Jerry Vlasak?” Animal Liberation Press Office, accessed June 6, 2010.
  27. Jump up ^ Best, Steven. “Gaps in Logic, lapses in policy: rights and Abolitionism in Joan Dunayer’s Speciesism” drstevebest.org, accessed 6 June 2010.
    • Best, Steven. “Who’s Afraid of Jerry Vlasak?” Animal Liberation Press Office, accessed 6 June 2010.
  28. Jump up ^ Bradley, Ed. “Interview with ALF cell member,” 60 minutes , CBS News 13 November, 2005.
  29. Jump up ^ Carbone, Larry. What animals want: Expertise and Advocacy in Laboratory Animal Welfare Policy . Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 90, and Orlans, F. Barbara. Human use of animals: Case Studies in ethical choice . Oxford University Press, 1998, p. 71-76.
    • The films can be viewed at: Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, Part 5.
  30. Jump up ^ Singer, Peter. Animal Liberation , cited in Best and Nocella. (eds.) Terrorists or freedom fighters? . Lantern Books, 2004, pp. 28-29.
  31. Jump up ^ “to Animals Forensic die on hunger strike,” Lancashire Evening Telegraph, November 8, 2001; “Barry’s life,” Arkangel , accessed 7 June 2010.
  32. Jump up ^ Hughes, Peter. “Animals, values and tourism – structural changes in the UK’s dolphin tourism destination,” Tourism Management , Volume 22, Issue 4, August 2001, pages 321-329 ..
    • See also “No dolphinariums in the UK,” Born Free Foundation.The Bellerive Foundation (Switzerland) and the World Society for the Protection of Animals (now known as World Animal Protection) were also involved in the campaign.
    • Mann, Keith. From Dusk ’til Dawn: An insider’s view of the growth of the animal liberation movement , Puppy Pincher Press, 2007, p. 167th
  33. Jump up ^ For “reverence for life” quote, see Lee, Ronnie. Peace News , 1974, and for the rest see Lee and Gary Treadwell in freedom , 1979, both quoted in Stall Wood, Kim. “A personal overview of Direct Action” in Best and Nocella. (eds.) Terrorists or freedom fighters? Lantern Books, 2004, p. 83.
  34. ^ Jump up to: ab Stable Wood, Kim. “A personal overview of Direct Action” in Best and Nocella (eds.). Terrorists or freedom fighters? Lantern Books, 2004, p. 83.
  35. Jump up ^ “The man who hunts the hunters”, St Neots Advertiser , December 24, 1975.
  36. Jump up ^ Webb, Robin. “Animal Liberation – With” all means necessary “,” the best and Nocella. (ed.) Terrorists or Freedom Fighters, Lantern Books, 2004, p. 77.
  37. Jump up ^ Gold, M. Animal Century: A Celebration of changing attitudes to animals . Carpenter, 1998, p. 158.
  38. Jump up ^ Stable Wood, Kim. “A personal overview of Direct Action” in Best and Nocella (eds.). Terrorists or freedom fighters? Lantern Books, 2004, pp. 85-87.
  39. Jump up ^ Carbone, Larry. “” What Animals Want: Expertise and Advocacy in Laboratory Animal Welfare Policy .. Oxford University Press, 2004, p 76, see Figure 4.2.
  40. ^ Hoppa upp till:a b Guillermo, Kathy Snow. Monkey Business , National Press Books, s. 69-72.
  41. Jump up ^ comes to animal rights and environmental extremism, “Terrorism 2000/2001,” Federal Bureau of Investigation.
  42. ^ Jump up to: ab Best, Steven Best & Nocella (eds), Terrorists or Freedom Fighters, Lantern Books, 2004, p. 21; Vorsino, Mary. “Last dolphin dies in marine laboratory,” Honolulu Star-Bulletin , 26 February 2004. See also Biography Ken Levasseur, “whales online, accessed 2 August 2009.
  43. Jump up ^ “History of the Animal Liberation Movement”, North American Animal Liberation Press Office; “Monumental Animal Liberation Front actions – the United States,” Animal Liberation Front, reached 6 June 2010.
  44. Jump up ^ Newkirk, Ingrid. Free the Animals: The Amazing True Story of Animal Liberation Front , 2000; Lowe, Brian M. Emerging Moral Vocabularies . Lexington Books, 2006, p. 92nd
  45. Jump up ^ Rudacille, Deborah. Scalpel and the Butterfly: The conflict between animal experiments and animal welfare . University of California Press, 2001, p. 136th
  46. Jump up ^ Orlans, F. Barbara. Human use of animals: Case Studies in ethical choice . Oxford University Press, 1998, pages 71-76. Best, Steven Best & Nocella (eds), Terrorists or Freedom Fighters, Lantern Books, 2004, p. 22.
  47. Jump up ^ McCarthy, Charles R.Den historical background of OPRRs responsibility for the humane care and use of laboratory animals “,” Reflections on the Organizational Locus of the Office for Protection from Research Risks ” Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Science , 28 October 2004; accessed 7 June 2010.
  48. Jump up ^ America’s Energy Committee on Health and the Environment (1991). NIH Reauthorization and health facilities: the hearings before the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, Second Session, February 8, 1990 – Health Facilities Protection and Primate Center Rehabilitation Act (HR 3349). Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.
  49. Jump up ^ Franklin, Ben A. “go overboard for” Animal Rights’ “, New York Times, 30 August 1987.
  50. Jump up ^ “Pro-Animal ALF defy the law in the name of compassion,” Sacramento Bee February 15, 1998.
  51. Jump up ^ Siegel, Lee (April 25, 1985). “NIH Director condemns experimental thefts as” terrorist acts “. ‘ Associated Press.
  52. Jump up ^ For information on Britches, see Steven Best in Best & Nocella (eds), Terrorists or Freedom Fighters, Lantern Books, 2004, p. 22.
    • For the University’s statement see Group raids Labs takes animals, Philadelphia Inquirer , april 22,, 1985.
  53. Jump up ^ “website PETA’s campaign against Mars,” reached 5 March, 2008.
  54. Jump up ^ “Confectionery (poisoning),” Hansard November 19, 1984; Schweitzer, Glenn E. Schweitzer and Dorsch, Carole. A faceless enemy: The Origins of Modern Terrorism . Da Capo Press, 2002, pp. 90th
  55. Jump up ^ The Guardian, April 14, 1990 and November 14, 1991, quoted in Garner, Robert. Animals, politics and morality . Manchester University Press, 2004, p. 235,.
  56. Jump up ^ for ARM claimed responsibility, see Mann, Keith. From Dusk ’til Dawn: An insider’s view of the growth of the animal liberation movement . Puppy Pincher Press, 2007, p. 497. For Mellor statement, see “Confectionery (poisoning),” Hansard , November 19, 1984.
  57. Jump up ^ Stable Wood, Kim. “A personal overview of Direct Action” in Best and Nocella (eds.). Terrorists or freedom fighters? Lantern Books, 2004, pp. 84th
  58. Jump up ^ Hansard December 14, 1992, column 223rd
  59. Jump up ^ “Stay on Target and Going the Distance: An interview with UKALF Press Officer Robin Webb,” No compromise the May 23, 2006 reached 5 March 2008.
  60. Jump up ^ The Times December 21, 1988, and February 24, 1989, and Henshaw, David. Animals Warfare: The history of animal Liberation Front . HarperCollins, 1989, pp. 102-113, quoted in Garner, Robert. Animals, politics and morality . Manchester University Press, 2004, p. 235,.
  61. Jump up ^ Mann, Keith. From Dusk Till Dawn . Puppy Pincher Press, 2007, p. 497th
  62. ^ Jump up to: abcd [2]
  63. Jump up ^ Best, Steven. “Introduction” in Best & Nocella. (eds.) Terrorists or freedom fighters? , Lantern Books, 2004, p. 25.
  64. Jump up ^ Garner, Robert. Animals, politics and morality . Manchester University Press, 2004, p. 235,.
    • Baker, Steve. Picturing the Beast: Animals, identity and representation . University of Illinois Press, 2001, p. 201ff.
    • Vines, Gail. “Veterinarians targeted in bomb attacks,” New Scientist, June 16, 1990.
  65. Jump up ^ Mann, Keith. From Dusk Till Dawn . Puppy Pincher Press, 2007, pp. 157-158.
  66. Jump up ^ Webb, Robin. “Animal Liberation – With” all means necessary “, in the best & Nocella (eds), Terrorists or Freedom Fighters , Lantern Books, 2004, p 78 ..
  67. Jump up ^ “From Push to Shove,” the Southern Poverty Law Center Intelligence Report, Fall 2002.
  68. Jump up ^ Addley, Esther. “Animal Liberation Front bomber jailed for 12 years”, The Guardian, December 8, 2006.
  69. Jump up ^ Goodwin, Jo-Ann. “The animals in the Hat”, The Daily Mail, October 15, in 2003.
  70. Jump up ^ “From Push to Shove,” the Southern Poverty Law Center, undated, load 2 October 2006.
  71. Jump up ^ “TV investigators kidnapped and branded” ALF “,” The Independent, November 7, 1999 accessed November 25, 2009.
  72. Jump up ^ “Chancellor takes steps to protect UCLA,” the Seattle Times , Rebecca Trounson and Joe Mozingo. August 27, 2006
  73. Jump up ^ Trounson, Rebecca & Mozingo, Joe. “UCLA protecting Animal Research”, Los Angeles Times August 26, 2006.
  74. Jump up ^ For Vlasak statement, see “Terror at UCLA,” Critical Mass 22 August, 2006.
  75. Jump up ^ Associated Press (7 Jul 2008). “Animal Activists Attacks Scientists’ Homes”. NBC News.
  76. Jump up ^ “Man sentenced to seven years for eco- terrorism fires”. Komonews. 4 June 2007. Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  77. Jump up ^ “Eleven respondents Indicted on domestic terrorism charges,” US Department of Justice on January 20, 2006. Retrieved October 2, 2006