Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty

Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty ( SHAC ) was an international animal legal campaign to close Huntingdon Life Sciences (HLS), Europe’s largest contract animal testing laboratory. SHAC ended his campaign in August 2014. HLS testing the medical and non-medical subjects at about 75,000 animals each year, from rats to primates. [1] [2] [3] [4] It has been the subject of several major leaks or undercover investigations of activists and journalists since 1989. [5]

SHAC was founded in November 1999 by three British animal rights activists – Greg Avery, Heather James, and Natasha Dell Magne – after video footage would have been shot covertly inside HLS 1997 by PETA (PETA) showed HLS staff shaking, punching, and called on the beagles in his care . [6] The film was broadcast by Channel 4 in the UK, where the employees dismissed and prosecuted, and HLS license to perform animal experiments was revoked for six months. PETA ended their protests against the company after HLS threatened with legal action, and SHAC took over as conductor resistance. [7]

The campaign used tactics ranging from non-violent protests to the alleged firebombing of the house owned by managers in connection with HLS customers and investors. The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC), which monitors US domestic extremism, has described SHAC’s modus operandi as “frankly terroristic tactics similar to those of anti-abortion extremists,” and in 2005, an official with the FBI’s counterterrorism division referred SHAC s activities in the United States as domestic terrorist threats. [8] [9]

In 2009 and 2010, 13 members of SHAC, including Avery, James, and Dell Magne, was jailed for between 15 months and eleven years on the charges of conspiracy to blackmail or damage HLS and its suppliers. [10] [11]

August 12, 2014 SHAC officially announced it was closing its campaign. [12]

Background 

HLS testing detergents, pesticides, herbicides, cosmetics, food additives, chemicals for use in industry, and medicines for use against Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, diabetes, multiple sclerosis and cancer. [1] It uses about 75,000 animals each year, including rats, rabbits, pigs, dogs, and primates (marmosets, macaques and wild caught baboons). [13]

The company has been the subject of several undercover investigations since 1989. Sarah Kite of the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection (BUAV) secured a job and filmed HLS in 1989. Zoe Broughton did the same for Channel Four in 1996, Michelle Rokke claimed to have made PETA 1997. Lucy Johnston for the Daily Express had access in 2000. A diary of Kite, who worked undercover for eight months claimed that HLS workers routinely abused animals, shouting at them, throw them in their cages, and mock them for suitable response to toxicity testing. In 1997, Zoe Broughton came out with pictures showing the puppies suffer and shaken. A year later, Michelle Rokke allegedly obtained photos of the vivisection of a monkey in HLS in New Jersey, where a technician expressing concern that the animal is insufficiently sedated. [5] Between 2006 and 2008, the Animal Defenders International employee filmed undercover in HLS after securing a position in the primate toxicology unit in Cambridgeshire. [14]

According to Mark Matfield of the Research Defence Society, a pro-animal lobby group in the United Kingdom, HLS lost a large part of the activities for these examinations, particularly among the pharmaceutical industry. “There was an ingrained feeling among scientists and businessmen that this company had infringed in a very serious way,” he said. [15]

Structure

SHAC Storbritannien

SHAC was founded in November 1999 by Greg Avery; his second wife, Natasha Avery (born Dell Magne); and his first wife, Heather Nicholson (born James). Avery and Nicholson had been involved in previous high-profile campaigns against plants in the UK bred animals for laboratories. In 1997, after a ten-month campaign, caused the closure of the Consort kennels, bred beagles for animal experiments. Later that year, they began to Save the Hillgrove cats against Hillgrove Farm in Oxfordshire, which bred cats for laboratories. Farm closed after two years. [16]

SHAC has a decentralized strategy with no official central leadership, making activists throughout the UK and North America to act independently, but The Guardian described the Avery 2008 as the de facto leader. [17] After Avery was jailed, another activist, Thomas Harris, ran the group in Britain until he was imprisoned in 2010. [11] Before his conviction, Nicholson, Avery and Dell Magne would publish reports on the SHAC website and by mail and giving the press information and interviews ; In April 2004, they were reported to live together rent-free in a house provided by a supporter, Virginia Jane Steele. [18]SHAC also receive revenue from the collection booths. According to The Times , a stall in London’s Oxford Street, generating £ 500 in one day, and a total of about £ 1 million in donations had been raised to 2008. [19]

According to prosecutors in a 2008 court case, coordinated senior members of SHAC campaign from a cottage in Little Moorcote, near Hook, Hampshire. [20]They would meet every three months to receive updates from colleagues in the US and Europe. [21] According to The Times , Gavin Messaging-Hall, a former computer technician, would lead the research potential targets. Police found worksheets at the cottage documenting the location of targets and details about their children and security arrangements. [19] Sarah Whitehead, an experienced advocate group known as “Mumsy”, would lead younger members and carry up to five attacks in a night, according to the judge. [11]

SHAC USA

SHAC USA was founded in 2004 by Kevin Jonas, sometimes spelled Kjonaas of the media, a political science degree from the University of Minnesota, after he had worked for two years in the UK with Greg Avery. Prosecutors in the United States said that a house in Somerset, New Jersey – a few miles from the HLS laboratories – was the headquarters of SHAC USA; Jonas lived there with Lauren Gazzola, SHAC USA campaign coordinator, and Jacob Conroy. [22]According to Jonas, the “SHAC campaign” came to mean any measure which seeks to contribute to the demise of HLS, whether legal or not, while SHAC itself referred only to the built-in group that ran a news and information service. Jonas writes that these distinctions were made in a number of lawsuits. [16] He told the Southern Poverty Law Center in 2002: “. There is a very famous quote by John F. Kennedy. ” If you make peaceful revolution impossible, you make violent revolution inevitable “” [23] After he was jailed in 2006 for inciting harassment against HLS, Pamelyn Ferdin, a former child actor, became President SHAC USA. [22]

methods

Secondary and tertiary targeting

SHAC’s modus operandi is called secondary and tertiary targeting. Activists engage in direct action -ranging from legal protests to threats, harassment and violent attacks-not only against HLS, its employees, and its employees’ families, but also to secondary and tertiary objectives HLS business partners and their business partners, insurance, catering, cleaning, children’s nursery and office suppliers. [24] The New York Yacht Club, for example, was covered with red paint because members of the club worked for Carr Securities, traded in HLS shares. [25] The campaign drove down HLS profit, suppressed its share price, and made it difficult to find companies and financial partners. [26]

The Daily Mail cites as examples of SHAC activism send letters to the neighbors of a man who did business with HLS, warning parents to keep their children away from him, Claiming that he had raped the letter writer when she was a child. A woman in her 60s, who worked for a company targeted by SHAC, had all the windows in her house smashed during the night and found a portrait hanging outside her home, which read “RIP Mary, Animal Abusing Bitch”. [27]

SHAC website said it published the names and addresses only so that people could protest within the law, [28] , but the testimony of the British House of 2003 included excerpts from a document said to have come from SHAC, who advised activists in the tactics of protests outside the goal homes . Among other things, throw the rape alarm in roof gutters at night, set off fireworks and ordering taxis and pizzas. [29]

In 2001, HLS managing director in the UK, Brian Cass, was beaten outside his home by three masked men – animal rights activist David Blenkinsop was sentenced to three years in prison for the attack – and HLS marketing manager Andrew Gay was attacked at his door with a chemical spray into the eyes that left him temporarily blind. [30]

Shareholder

In 2000, SHAC obtained a list of HLS shareholders, including the names of beneficial owners usually anonymous – those who hold shares through a third party – and pension funds in the British Labour Party, Rover cars and the London Borough of Camden. The list sent to The Sunday Telegraph , published on 3 December 2000, and several beneficial owners disposed of their shares; Labour sold his 75,000 shares in January 2001. Two weeks after the Telegraph story, was a holding of 32 million shares placed on the London Stock Exchange for a penny each. [31]

On 21 December 2000 HLS dropped from the New York Stock Exchange because its market capitalization had fallen below NYSE limits and March 29, 2001, HLS lost both their market makers and its location on the London Stock Exchange. Shortly after this, HLS moved its headquarters to the United States, which includes the Life Sciences Research (LSR), and secured a $ 15m loan from EIB Stephens, Inc, its largest shareholder. In September 2005, after the firebombing of homes a Canadian brokerage employee and a British pharmaceutical executive asked the New York Stock Exchange LSR to delay moving the listing from the OTC Bulletin Board to the main exchange. [32] LSR has since transferred the note to the NYSE Arca electronic exchange. HLS is no longer a public company after being bought by CEO Andrew Baker. [33]

In June 2005, the Vancouver-based brokerage Canaccord Capital announced that it had dropped a client, Phytopharm PLC, in response to the May 2005 Animal Liberation Front (ALF) firebombing of a car belonging to Canaccord executive Michael Kendall. ALF stated on its website that activists placed an incendiary bomb under the car, which was in Kendall garage at home when the fire started during the night. Kendall and his family went into hiding. Phytopharm directed, which was doing business with it, because it had business ties with HLS. [34]

In May 2006, an anonymous group said it would write to each of GlaxoSmithKline’s 170,000 small investors warning them to sell their shares. The letters began to arrive at the investors’ home addresses, May 7, 2006 asked that the shares sold within 14 days, and that the group should be advised on the sale by mail through a Hotmail address. [35] The number of letters was smaller than claimed; The BBC said at least 50 shareholders received the warning. [36] Writing in The Sunday Telegraph the following week, the British Prime Minister Tony Blair expressed his support for animal experiments in the face of a “scary … intimidation campaign.” [ Citation needed ]

Affiliated with the ALF

SHAC website offers ALF news. Kevin Jonas – who took care of SHAC UK while Avery and James was jailed for six months in 2002 – declared its support for the ALF, and Robin Webb, spokesman for the ALF in Britain, attended and addressed the SHAC conferences in the United States. [7]

A publication on the website Bite Back 7 September 2005 claimed the ALF had carried out an attack on the home of Paul Blackburn, corporate controller, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), in Buckinghamshire, since GSK is a client of HLS. The activists admitted detonating a device containing two liters of fuel and four pounds of explosives on the doorstep of Blackburn home. [37] In 2006, ALF warned that it was targeting HLS suppliers, and the same year firebombed a car belonging to the finance director of Canaccord Capital, a brokerage firm. Members of SHAC said the company had acted as a broker for Phytopharm, who had used the HLS for contract testing. [38]

In December 2006, Donald Currie was jailed for 12 years in connection with a fire bomb crimes against HLS customers; The police described him as an “active Bomber Animal Liberation Front.” [39]

A British police operation found that the core group of the SHAC activists would compile private encrypted reports detailing the legal protests and an illegal blackmail campaign previously attributed to SHAC, the latter claimed the ALF or the Animal Rights Militia. [19] In 2008 and 2010, when 13 members of SHAC, including Avery and Nicholson, were convicted of conspiracy to extortion, police said their actions were on behalf of the ALF; senior members of SHAC was regarded by police as key figures in the ALF, according to The Guardian . Members had sent incriminating e-mails describing their participation in direct measures, including an e-mail message to Bite Back in 2007 provides information on the ALF attacked the previous evening. [40]SHAC spokesmen have denied any connection between their campaign and ALF.

The FBI linked with SHAC attacks claimed by the militant animal rights group, Animal Liberation Brigade. They issued a warrant for Daniel Andreas San Diego, which they described as “involved in the Stop Huntington Animal Cruelty” campaign, in connection with bomb attacks against two of HLS customers in California. [41] A Listen Kevin Jonas revealed Phone San Diego had called him the day of the bombing. [22] San Diego was added to the FBI’s Most Wanted Terrorists list in 2009 and is still at large. [42]

Beliefs and laws

Many companies covered by SHAC in Britain obtained injunctions. These include self-HLS, Chiron UK, Phytopharm, Daiichi Britain, Asahi Glass, Eisai, Yamanouchi Pharma Sankyo Pharma, and BOC. The injunctions forcing SHAC print order on their website, so that SHAC’s action targets were side by side with a legal notification that there was a 50-yard zone around the homes of employees and offices. Protest outside HLS himself had done one day a week with a police presence. HLS tried but failed in June 2004 to obtain a permanent injunction against SHAC. SHAC argument against the execution of those orders was that, despite the fact that hundreds of supporters, a website, address, telephone information hotline, mailing list, and bank account, it does not exist as a business or charitable body, and therefore can not prevent supporters from taking action against HLS. [43]

SHAC campaign announced the introduction of sections 145-149 of the British Serious Organised Crime and Police Act 2005, which created new offenses aimed at protecting animal testing facilities, including the prohibition of acts or threats intended to cause someone to quit or not to conclude an agreement with such a facility. [44] The first person to be sentenced according to the law, Joseph Harris, a doctor of molecular biology, who attacked property owned by the company that supplies materials to the HLS; He got three years in prison. [45] In February 2007, a number of SHAC supporters have been charged with illegal street collecting without a license. [46] According to the Metropolitan Police, two booths in London Oxford Street collected over £ 80,000 per year. In March 2007, there were three activists detained under the law to intimidate HLS suppliers; a supplier dropped its contract with HLS after being invaded by demonstrators wearing skull masks. [47]

2006: SHAC 7 (US)

In March 2006, a federal jury in Trenton, New Jersey, found six members of SHAC obliged to use their website to incite attacks on those who did business with HLS. [48] Originally, seven people (SHAC 7) charged: Kevin Jonas (former president of Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty USA), Lauren Gazzola, Jacob Conroy, Joshua Harper, Andrew Stepanian, Darius Fullmer and John McGee. McGee later dropped from the case. [22] They were charged with conspiracy to violate the Animal Enterprise Protection Act, in the first application of the 1992 Act. Jonas, Gazzola, Conroy, and Harper has been charged with conspiracy to harass using a telecommunications device (send black faxes), while Jonas, Gazzola, Conroy, and SHAC USA has been charged with stalking via the internet. The defense of the SHAC 7 rested largely on the 1969 case of Brandenburg v. Ohio , where the US Supreme Court ruled that political speech is legal unless it can be shown that the defendant has told some people to commit specific, imminent acts of violence. [49] They were sentenced on 3 March 2006, four of them to between three and six years, and ordered to pay joint restitution of $ 1,000,001.00. [ Citation needed ]

During 2011 NPR reported that Andrew Stepanian of the SHAC 7 – since released-had been imprisoned in the highly restrictive Communications Management Unit of the US federal prison system. [50]

2007: Operation Achilles (UK)

1 May 2007 a series of raids-Operation Achilles was against SHAC in Europe, involving 700 police officers in England, Amsterdam, and Belgium. [10] Thirty-two people were arrested, including Greg and Natasha Avery and Heather Nicholson, who was indicted for extortion, along with nine others. [51] The Avery pleaded guilty in July 2008, along with a co-accused Dan Amos. In October 2008, Trevor Holmes, Gerrah Selby, Daniel Wadham, Gavin Messaging-Hall and Heather Nicholson, who denied the allegations, were sent to court. [52] The prosecutor told jurors that a meeting in 2007 between the defendants had been intercepted by the police, and revealed that SHAC support illegal acts which were traced to attacks on people throughout the UK. The prosecutor also argued that there was evidence of direct e-mail links between SHAC, Animal Liberation Front and the Animal Rights Militia. [53]Holmes was acquitted, but the other four were convicted.

In January 2009, Nicholson was sentenced to 11 years in prison, Greg and Natasha to nine years, Messaging-Hall to eight years, Wadham to five years, and Selby and Amos to four years. [54] Injunctions called anti-social behavior order was served on all seven, limit their contact with the companies targeted in the campaign. [55] In 2009, The Sunday Times reported that Adrian Radford, a former soldier and gay activist, had befriended Natasha Avery and had informed the police about the activity of leading SHAC members between 2004 and 2007. [56] Der Spiegel wrote that as a result of police operation the number of attacks against HLS and associated companies fell drastically, [10] , although the day after the judges new services on SHAC’s website showed that the campaign would continue. [57]

2008 onwards

In 2008, activists from various groups, including SHAC, targeted Highgate Rabbit Farm in Market Rasen, Lincolnshire, who sold rabbits and ferrets for HLS and other laboratories; the near Highgate Farm campaign included an ALF raid where 129 rabbits were removed and £ 100,000 worth of property damage. [58] In 2009, a new group, Militant forces against Huntingdon Life Sciences , arose in Germany and Switzerland, focusing on personnel, Bayer, Novartis director, the CEO of Pfizer, and Highgate Farm, among others. [59]

In 2010, five members of SHAC pleaded guilty to criminal charges. Sarah Whitehead, Nicole Vosper and Thomas Harris plead guilty to conspiracy to commit extortion; Jason Mullan and Nicola Tapping plead guilty to violations of section 145 of SOCPA. They were all jailed for between six and fifteen months. Times reported that their activities are “sending hoax bombs to the home and office, making the threat of violence, daubing offensive graffiti on property and send used tampons in the post.” [11] Harris sentence was extended after he, Mary Neal and Christopher Potter confessed also liable to additional costs in connection with attacks on branches of Barclays, including the painting “ALF” on buildings. At the time, Barclays Asset Management was linked to HLS. [60]

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